Dactylis to Dryopteris 

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Dactylis glomerata L.  Cock's-foot

 

 

 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 14

                        Ten kilometre squares: NG 53, 54, (55)

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

 

Rona:               Ten kilometre squares: NG 66

                        First Record: SJB 2005.

 

Reasonably frequent in south-eastern Raasay around Clachan and Inverarish. Uncommon elsewhere being only recorded from Eyre, Balachuirn, Brochel and Arnish on Raasay and the base at the north end of Rona. Old record from Fladday not re-found.

 

 

 

 

X Dactylodenia legrandiana (E.G. Camus) Peitz  Gymnadenia borealis x Dactylorhiza maculata

 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 0

                        Ten kilometre squares: (NG 53)

                        First Record: JWHH 1951.

 

Rona:               Not known.

 

One recorded near a croft east of the pier (Harrison, 1951). It should be noted that JWHH usually intended the pier to mean the one at East Suisnish but occasionally seems to have meant the old harbour at Clachan. Not recorded since.

X Dactylodenia st-quintinii (Godfery) J. Duvign. Gymnadenia borealis x Dactylorhiza fuchsii  

 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 1

                        Ten kilometre squares: NG (53), 54

                        First Record: JWHH 1951.

 

Rona:               Not known.

 

Several recorded west of the pier (Harrison, 1951). One recent record from Brochel: SJB & MHR 2004.

X Dactylodenia varia (T. & T.A. Stephenson) Aver. Gymnadenia borealis x Dactylorhiza purpurella 

 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 1

                        Ten kilometre squares: NG 53

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1937.

 

 Rona:             Not known.

 

Recorded from Oskaig Point (Harrison, 1937c). Found behind Oskaig saltmarsh in 1995 by SJB & CWM conf. RMB 1996. Probably now lost owing to tree planting.

Dactylorhiza fuchsii (Druce) So   Common Spotted-orchid

 

 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 33

                        Ten kilometre squares: NG 53, 54, 55

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

 

Rona:               Ten kilometre squares: NG 65

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

 

Marshes and wet grassland away from acid soil.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dactylorhiza incarnata subsp. coccinea (Pugsley) So   Early Marsh-orchid

 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 1

                        Ten kilometre squares: NG 53

                        First Record: JWHH 1951.

 

Rona:               Not known.

 

Fearns (Harrison, 1951). Re-found SJB 1997 and conf. RMB as the inland form of this subspecies, usually thought of as a coastal plant.  Still there 2007.

 

Dactylorhiza incarnata (L.) So subsp. incarnata   Early Marsh-orchid

 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 0

                        Ten kilometre squares: ( )

                        First Record: (JWHH et al. 1934-36.)

 

Rona:               Ten kilometre squares: NG 65

                        First Record: (EPS 1933.)

 

The pinkish or perhaps light purple individuals of this species found in the north-west of Scotland have traditionally been placed in this subspecies. However, they are not the same as subsp. incarnata from southern Britain. RMB puts the bulk of our specimens in subsp. pulchella. These plants occur in the same habitat as, and often together with the dark form of subsp. pulchella. However, there is another form on Raasay and Rona found in marshes that has flowers of a colour I have never before recorded for incarnata - less purple than pale pulchella, but much less red than typical subsp. incarnata (RMB). The status of these plants is currently unclear.

 

Dactylorhiza incarnata subsp. pulchella  (Druce) So  Early Marsh-orchid

 

 

 

Dark form:

Raasay:           Recording Units: 8

                       Ten kilometre squares: NG 53, 54

                       

Rona:              Not known

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                       

 

 

Light form:

 

 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 27

                        Ten kilometre squares: NG 53, 54, 55, 64

 

 

Rona:               Ten kilometre squares: NG 65

 

 

 

 

 

 

Raasay:          First Record: (JWHH et al. 1934-36.) KC 1979.

Rona:             First Record: (EPS 1933.)

See comments under subsp. incarnata. The dark form is the traditional magenta subsp. pulchella. The light form is what would have previously been recorded as subsp. incarnata.

 

Dactylorhiza maculata (L.) So Heath Spotted-orchid 

 

 

 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 83

                        Ten kilometre squares: NG 53, 54, 55, 64, 65

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

 

Rona:               Ten kilometre squares: NG 65, 66

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

 

Widespread on moorland and also in grassland. Often vies with Orchis mascula to be the first orchid in flower in April, but some specimens flower as late as September with flowering plants still present in October in some years..

 

 

 

 

[Dactylorhiza praetermissa (Druce) So Southern Marsh-orchid]

Raasay:           Recording Units: 0

                        Ten kilometre squares: (53)

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

 

Rona:               Not known.

 

Marshes in Fearns area (Harrison,1937a). Retracted in Harrison & Morton (1951).

 

Dactylorhiza purpurella (T. & T.A. Stephenson) So  Northern Marsh-orchid

 

 

 

 

 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 20

                        Ten kilometre squares: NG 53, 54, 64, 65

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

 

Rona:               Ten kilometre squares: NG 65, 66

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

 

Marshes, wet places on moors and near the sea.

 

 

 

 

 

Dactylorhiza traunsteinerioides (Pugsley) Landwehr ex RM Bateman & Denholm  Pugsleys Marsh-orchid

Nationally Scarce.  Near-threatened

Raasay:           Recording Units: 2

                        Ten kilometre squares: NG 54

                        First Record: SJB 1994.

 

Rona:               Not known.

 

Moorland overlying basic rocks. These plants were previously described as D. lapponica Lapland Marsh-orchid, a taxon now included in  D. traunsteinerioides and according to Bateman & Denholm (2012) are ssp. francis-drucei var. francis-drucei.

 

Interestingly, Harrison, 1951 remarks under D. purpurella that two Raasay populations by the road to Fearns and near Loch Eadar da Bhaile recall certain examples of D. traunsteinerioides Pugsl. Plants in those locations today fall within the modern concept of D. purpurella.

 

Dactylorhiza x carnea (E.G. Camus) So  Dactylorhiza maculata x incarnata

Raasay:           Recording Units: 0

                        Ten kilometre squares: (NG 53)

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

 

Rona:               Not known.

 

Marsh, South Fearns (Harrison 1937a). Not seen since.

 

Dactylorhiza x formosa (T. & T.A. Stephenson) So  Dactylorhiza maculata x purpurella

Raasay:           Recording Units: 2

                        Ten kilometre squares: NG 53

                        First Record: JWHH 1951.

 

Rona:               Not known.

 

Between Suisnish and Rudha na Cloiche (Harrison,1951). Inverarish and Oskaig SJB 1996 conf. RMB.

 

Dactylorhiza x transiens (Druce) So  Dactylorhiza fuchsii x maculata

 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 1

                        Ten kilometre squares: NG (53), 54

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

 

Rona:               Not known.

 

Marsh near shore at Fearns (Harrison,1937); seaward slope below North Fearns, west of Suisnish and near Balachuirn (Harrison,1951). Recorded from Brae, 2007. Probably more widespread than records suggest.

 

Dactylorhiza x venusta (T. & T.A. Stephenson) So  Dactylorhiza fuchsii x purpurella

Raasay:           Recording Units: 1

                        Ten kilometre squares: NG (53), 54

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36. 

 

Rona:               Not known.

 

South-east coast (Harrison,1937); Suisnish Point, Inverarish, Fearns, Oskaig, Balachuirn (Harrison,1951). Beside Loch Eadar da Bhaile, SJB 2007 conf. RMB. Some dark D. fuchsii are also present which show few other characteristics of D. purpurella. These may be the result of introgression.

 

Danthonia decumbens (L.) DC. Heath-grass 

 

 

 

 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 73

                        Ten kilometre squares: NG 53, 54, 55, 64, 65

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

 

Rona:               Ten kilometre squares: NG 65, 66

                        First Record: EPS 1933.

 

Moorland and rough grassland.

 

 

 

 

 

Daucus carota L. subsp. carota   Wild Carrot 

 

 

 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 11

                        Ten kilometre squares: NG 53, 54

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

 

Rona:               Ten kilometre squares: (NG 65)

                        First Record: EPS 1933.

 

Neutral or basic grassy banks often near the sea.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Deschampsia cespitosa (L.) P. Beauv. subsp. cespitosa   Tufted Hair-grass

 

 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 61

                        Ten kilometre squares: NG 53, 54, 55, 64, 65

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

 

Rona:               Ten kilometre squares: NG 65

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

 

Rough grassland, usually in small numbers.

 

 

 

 

 

Deschampsia flexuosa (L.) Trin.   Wavy Hair-grass

Raasay:           Recording Units: 94

                        Ten kilometre squares: NG 53, 54, 55, 64, 65

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

 

Rona:               Ten kilometre squares: NG 65, 66

                        First Record: EPS 1933.

 

Very common throughout both islands.

 

Deschampsia setacea (Huds.) Hack. Bog Hair-grass    Nationally Scarce

 

 

 

 

 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 6

                        Ten kilometre squares: NG 53

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

 

Rona:               Not known.

 

Plentiful in Loch Storab, though nearby tree-planting may affect it in the longer term. Also in several lochans in the same general area. Loch Eadar da Bhaile record (CWM 1969) not re-found.

 

 

 

 

 

Digitalis purpurea L.   Foxglove 

 

 

 

 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 81

                        Ten kilometre squares: All

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

                       

 

Rona:               Ten kilometre squares: NG 65, 66

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

 

Widespread in woodland, grassland and anywhere with a little enrichment. Particularly numerous in recently felled forest.

 

 

 

 

 

Diphasiastrum alpinum (L.) Holub   Alpine Clubmoss 

 

 

 

 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 5

                        Ten kilometre squares: NG 53, 54, 55

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

                       

 

Rona:               Not known.

 

Highest parts of Raasay - Dun Caan and Meall Daimh - but also rather lower in NG5737 at about 270m. Beinn na h-Iolaire (NG55) 1998 FA, confirmed there in small numbers SJB 2003.

 

 

 

 

Draba incana L. Hoary Whitlowgrass 

 

 

 

 

 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 13

                        Ten kilometre squares: NG 53, 54

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

                       

 

Rona:               Not known.

 

Confined to the basic eastern cliffs of Raasay where not uncommon.

 

Herb. HAMU: GWT 1936 Raasay.

 

 

 

 

Drosera anglica Huds.  Great Sundew      Near-threatened

 

 

 

 

 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 46

                        Ten kilometre squares: NG 53, 54, 55, 64, 65

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

                       

Rona:               Ten kilometre squares: NG 65

                        First Record: EPS 1933.

 

Bogs. Less common than D. rotundifolia but still quite frequent.

 

Herb. HAMU: GWT 1936, 1937 Raasay.

 

 

 

 

[Drosera intermedia Hayne  Oblong-leaved Sundew] 

 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 0

                        Ten kilometre squares: (NG 53)

                        First Record: NCCLS 1989.

                       

Rona:               Not known.

 

Recorded from Raasay by the NCC Loch Survey 1989. Not seen by the author despite several visits to the NCCLS site. ]

 

Drosera rotundifolia L. Round-leaved Sundew 

 

 

 

 

 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 91

                        Ten kilometre squares: NG 53, 54, 55, 64, 65

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

                       

Rona:               Ten kilometre squares: NG 65, 66

                        First Record: EPS 1933.

 

Widespread and common on moors, in bare patches and wet places.

 

 

 

 

Drosera x obovata Mert. & W.D.J. Koch Drosera rotundifolia x anglica

 

 

 

 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 5

                        Ten kilometre squares: NG 54, 55

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

                       

Rona:               Ten kilometre squares: NG 65

                        First Record: SJB 2007.

 

Occasional with the parents in wet places. Specimens from the marsh at the southern end of Loch Eadar da Bhaile (2002) showed surprisingly hairy petioles but were confirmed as this hybrid by AC.

 

Herb. LANC: KBB 1935 Raasay.

 

 

 

 

Dryas octopetala L. Mountain Avens   Nationally Scarce

Raasay:           Recording Units: 13

                        Ten kilometre squares: NG 53, 54

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

                       

Rona:               Not known.

 

Confined to basic eastern cliffs of Raasay and the inland volcanic vent at Brochel, but present in large quantities, in places becoming the dominant species.

 

Herb. HAMU: GWT 1936 Cliffs south of Brochel; RBC undated.   LANC: KBB 1935 Raasay.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dryopteris aemula (Aiton) Kuntze   Hay-scented Buckler-fern 

 

 

 

 

 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 69

                        Ten kilometre squares: NG 53, 54, 55, 64, 65

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

                       

Rona:               Ten kilometre squares: NG 65, 66

                        First Record: SJB & CWM 1994.

 

Widespread in woods and shade generally including northern-facing slopes. Surprisingly common in comparison with Skye.

 

 

 

 

 

Dryopteris affinis agg. (Lowe) Fraser-Jenk.   Scaly Male-fern 

 

 

 

 

 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 92

                        Ten kilometre squares: All

                        First Record: MMcCW 1957.

                       

Rona:               Ten kilometre squares: NG 65, 66

                        First Record: SJB & CWM 1994.

 

Common among rocks, in grassland and woods. A complex species with frequently changing taxonomy. Newly promoted species affinis, borreri and cambrensis all appear to be present.  Not recorded by JWHH et al. - perhaps included with D. filix-masDryopteris borreri confirmed from Rona in 2010, MG.

 

 

 

[Dryopteris carthusiana (Vill.) H.P. Fuchs  Narrow Buckler-fern]

Raasay:           Recording Units: 0

                        Ten kilometre squares: ?

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

                       

Rona:               Ten kilometre squares: (NG 65)

                        First Record: EPS 1933.

 

"Sparingly, but generally distributed in shaded situations" (Harrison, 1937). By the cave, Rona (Smith, 1934). Occasional on Raasay NG5948, MEB 1981. Not seen on Raasay or Rona by the author. Confused with D. dilatata and/or D. expansa?  The latter was not recorded by JWHH et al.

 

Dryopteris dilatata (Hoffm.) A. Gray   Broad Buckler-fern 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 94

                        Ten kilometre squares: NG 53, 54, 55, 64, 65

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

                       

Rona:               Ten kilometre squares: NG 65, 66

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

 

Widespread and variable in woods, rocks, shaded situations generally.

 

Herb. BM: MMcCW 1957 Wall north of Raasay House det. ACJ & JAC.

 

Dryopteris expansa (C. Presl) Fraser-Jenk. & Jermy   Northern Buckler-fern

 

 

 

 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 13

                        Ten kilometre squares: NG 53, 54

                        First Record: MMcCW1957.

                       

Rona:               Not known.

 

North of Raasay House (MMcCW 1957). See Crabbe et al. 1970. The reference to Hallaig is incorrect. Locally frequent amongst rocks and wind-protected areas of moorland. SJB specimen 1986 conf. AP.

Herb. BM: MMcCW 1957 det. ACJ & JAC.

 

 

 

 

Dryopteris filix-mas (L.) Schott   Male-fern 

 

 

 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 50

                        Ten kilometre squares: NG 53, 54, 55, 64, 65

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

                       

Rona:               Ten kilometre squares: NG 65, 66

                        First Record: MJD & WOC 1958.

 

Common in woods, etc. (Harrison, 1937). Perhaps this included D. affinis which was not recorded in that work. Uncommon, but scattered plants are to be found widely, usually in woodland. Reported from the Dry Harbour area and Big Harbour woodland on Rona in 1958 (Delaney & Copland, 1964.)

 

 

 

 

Dryopteris oreades Fomin   Mountain Male-fern 

 

 

 

 

 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 3

                        Ten kilometre squares: NG 53, 54

                        First Record: SJB1997 det. AP.

                       

Rona:               Not known.

 

 

Only known from an two areas west of Dun Caan and Meall Daimh.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dryopteris x complexa Fraser-Jenk.  Dryopteris filix-mas x affinis

 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 1

                        Ten kilometre squares: NG 53

                        First Record: MMcCW 1957.

                       

Rona:               Not known.

 

Recorded from the southern part of Raasay by MMcCW. Specimens near Leac identified as this by MHR during visit to Raasay 2004. Probably more widespread.

 

 

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