Eleocharis to Exaculum 

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Eleocharis multicaulis (Sm.) Desv.   Many-stalked Spike-rush

 

 

 

 

 

 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 58

                        Ten kilometre squares: NG 53, 54, 55, 64, 65

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

 

Rona:               Ten kilometre squares: NG 65, 66

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

 

Widespread in boggy areas. Missing from much of eastern Raasay where the land is less acid. The commonest Eleocharis species.

 

 

 

 

Eleocharis palustris (L.) Roem. & Schult.  Common Spike-rush

 

 

 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 37

                        Ten kilometre squares: NG 53, 54, 55, 64, 65

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

 

Rona:               Ten kilometre squares: NG 65, 66

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36 (implied).

 

 

Lochs, pools and marshes. Sometimes luxuriant specimens in muddy edges of lochs. All specimens examined critically appear to be subsp. vulgaris.

 

 

 

 

 

Eleocharis quinqueflora (Hartmann) O. Schwarz  Few-flowered Spike-rush

 

 

 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 36

                        Ten kilometre squares: NG 53, 54, 55, 64, 65

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

 

Rona:               Ten kilometre squares: NG 65, 66

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36 (implied).

 

Flushes with Carex dioica. C. hostiana, often Schoenus nigricans, and sometimes Dactylorhiza incarnata. Also in saltmarshes and similar coastal areas.

 

 

 

 

 

Eleocharis uniglumis (Link) Schult.   Slender Spike-rush 

 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 1

                        Ten kilometre squares: NG 53

                        First Record: JWHH & JKM 1951.

 

Rona:               Not known.

 

Only known from the Oskaig saltmarsh (Harrison, 1951). Pointed out by CDF to SJB who had been ignoring it for years, 2004.

 

Eleogiton fluitans (L.) Link   Floating Club-rush 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 41

                        Ten kilometre squares: NG 53, 54, 55, 64, 65

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

 

Rona:               Ten kilometre squares: NG 65

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36 (implied).

 

Common in lochs, lochans, pools and slower reaches of burns.

 

 

 

 

 

Elymus caninus (L.) L. Bearded Couch 

 

 

 

 

 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 3

                        Ten kilometre squares: NG 53, 54

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

 

Rona:               Not known.

 

Rare on rocks, west side of Loch Eadar da Bhaile JWHH. Still there 1994 - needs to be rechecked! Two places on the east coast of Raasay 1993, 1994 SJB det. TC.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. ex Nevski   Common Couch 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 4

                        Ten kilometre squares: NG 53, 54

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

 

Rona:               Not known.

 

Rare as a shingle plant, a garden weed and in waste places. Inverarish, Clachan, Balachuirn and Arnish.

 

 

 

 

Elytrigia x laxa (Fr.) Kerguélen Elytrigia repens x juncea 

 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 2

                        Ten kilometre squares: NG 53

                        First Record: SJB 1997.

 

Rona:               Not known.

 

Rare on the coast near estuary of Arish Burn (1997) and near the old harbour (2000); both det. TC.

 

Empetrum nigrum L. subsp. nigrum   Crowberry 

 

 

 

 

 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 85

                        Ten kilometre squares: NG 53, 54, 55, 64, 65

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

 

Rona:               Ten kilometre squares: NG 65, 66

                        First Record: MM 1703 as Erica baccifera (Publication date. Observation c. 1695)

 

Widespread on rocky moorland and coastal rocks, occasionally abundant.

 

 

 

 

Epilobium alsinifolium Vill.  Chickweed Willowherb 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 0

                        Ten kilometre squares: (NG 54)

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1937.

 

Rona:               Not known.

 

In a wet spot about one mile north of Dun Caan, at approximately 1000 feet (Harrison,1937c).  Some plants seen in this area in 1999 might have been Epilobium x haynaldianum (E. palustre x alsinifolium) but they were lost during the renewal of the Raasay water supply.

 

*Epilobium brunnescens (Cockayne) P.H. Raven & Engelhorn  New Zealand Willowherb  

 

 

 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 58

                        Ten kilometre squares: NG 53, 54, 55, 64, 65

                        First Record: SJB 1989. 

 

Rona:               Ten kilometre squares: NG 65, 66

                        First Record: SJB 2003.

 

Widespread in many habitats from stony moorland to gardens. Well established on Raasay by time of first record.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

*Epilobium ciliatum Raf.  American Willowherb 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 2

                        Ten kilometre squares: NG 53

                        First Record: SJB 2002. 

 

Rona:               Ten kilometre squares: NG 65

                        First Record: SJB 2006.

 

Waste ground by the steadings, Clachan 2002 det. TDP. Garden weed West Suisnish 2005. At the temple, Rona 2006.

 

Epilobium hirsutum L.   Great Willowherb

 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 1

                        Ten kilometre squares: NG 53

                        First Record: SJB 2012

 

Rona:               Not known.

 

Two plants appeared near new ferry terminal 2012.

 

Epilobium montanum L.  Broad-leaved Willowherb 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 55

                        Ten kilometre squares: NG 53, 54, 55, 64, 65

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

 

Rona:               Ten kilometre squares: NG 65, 66

                        First Record: (EPS 1933 has Epilobium but no species). JWHH et al. 1934-36.

 

Widespread in woodland and sheltered spots, waste ground and gardens.

 

 

 

 

Epilobium obscurum Schreb.   Short-fruited Willowherb

 

 

 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 31

                        Ten kilometre squares: NG 53, 54, 55, 65

                        First Record: MMcCW 1957.

 

Rona:               Ten kilometre squares: NG 65, 66

                        First Record: SJB & CWM 1994.

 

Damp ground especially near the coast, on tracks and also a garden weed.

 

 

 

 

 

Epilobium palustre L.   Marsh Willowherb

 

 

 

 

 

 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 73

                        Ten kilometre squares: NG 53, 54, 55, 64, 65

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

 

Rona:               Ten kilometre squares: NG 65, 66

                        First Record: EPS 1933.

 

Frequent in marshes, ditches and flushes.

 

 

 

 

Epilobium parviflorum Schreb.   Hoary Willowherb 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 1

                        Ten kilometre squares: NG 53

                        First Record: MMcCW1957.

 

Rona:               Ten kilometre squares: NG 65

                        First Record: SJB & CWM 1994.

 

Very rare, perhaps only a casual. Southern Raasay 1957. One plant West Suisnish 2000, not seen since. One plant on Rona seen 1994, not seen since.

 

[Epilobium tetragonum L. Square-stalked Willowherb] 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 0

                        Ten kilometre squares: (NG 54)

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

 

Rona:               Not known.

 

Sparingly near Brochel, and down the east coast of Raasay (Harrison, 1937). Below Hallaig waterfall KC 1977. The New Atlas (Preston et al. 2002) rejected all records for Scotland. Error for E. obscurum?

 

Epipactis atrorubens (Hoffm.) Besser   Dark-red Helleborine   Nationally Scarce 

 

 

 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 7

                        Ten kilometre squares: NG 53, 54

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

 

Rona:               Not known.

 

On the eastern cliffs of Raasay in good numbers – about 80 were counted in 2004 and there are likely to be more on inaccessible cliffs that appear to be identical in nature and adjacent to known sites. All records were in NG54 until 1995 when a site in NG53 was found. Two further sites in NG53, one with 44 plants were found in 2010. Some old sites have not been rediscovered.

 

 

 

 

 

Equisetum arvense L.   Field Horsetail 

 

 

 

 

 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 16

                        Ten kilometre squares: NG 53, 54

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

 

Rona:               Ten kilometre squares: NG 65, 66

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

 

Occasional, often in disturbed ground - both landslips and cultivation.

 

 

 

 

 

Equisetum fluviatile L.   Water Horsetail 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 40

                        Ten kilometre squares: NG 53, 54, 55, 65

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

 

Rona:               Ten kilometre squares: NG 65

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

 

Lochs, lochans, marshes and ditches.

 

 

 

 

 

Equisetum palustre L.   Marsh Horsetail

 

 

 

 

 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 47

                        Ten kilometre squares: NG 53, 54, 55, 64, 65

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

 

Rona:               Ten kilometre squares: NG 65, 66

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

 

Common in wet habitats but rare in the north of Raasay – not recorded in NG65 on Raasay until 1999 and then in very small numbers from a single site.

 

 

 

 

 

Equisetum pratense Ehrh.   Shady Horsetail   Nationally Scarce 

 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 2

                        Ten kilometre squares: NG 54

                        First Record: SJB 1996..

 

Rona:               Not known.

 

Only known from two locations on Raasay. One amongst heather to the west of Meall Daimh is reliable every year. The second site is further north (SJB 1997) but here this species has not been seen again, However, the area is grazed by rabbits and it may be a matter of catching a rather brief existence.

 

Equisetum sylvaticum L.  Wood Horsetail 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 42

                        Ten kilometre squares: NG 53, 54, 64, 65

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

 

Rona:               Ten kilometre squares: NG 65, 66

                        First Record: EPS 1933.

 

Moorland slopes and woods, quite frequent.

 

 

 

 

 

Equisetum telmateia Ehrh.   Great Horsetail 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 7

                        Ten kilometre squares: NG 53, 54

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36..

 

Rona:               Not known.

 

Slopes and flat ground along the east coast of Raasay only.

 

 

 

 

 

Equisetum x litorale Khlew. ex Rupr.  Equisetum fluviatile x arvense   Shore Horsetail

 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 1

                        Ten kilometre squares: NG 53

                        First Record: JRP 1979.

 

Rona:               Not known.

 

Plants described as probably this hybrid were recorded near the pier, East Suisnish. Confirmed SJB 2007 det. HMcH.  

 

Erica cinerea L.  Bell Heather 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 98

                        Ten kilometre squares: NG 53, 54, 55, 64, 65

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

 

Rona:               Ten kilometre squares: NG 65, 66

                        First Record: EPS 1933.

 

Very common apart from basic areas in the east of Raasay.

 

Erica tetralix L.  Cross-leaved Heath 

 

 

 

 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 91

                        Ten kilometre squares: NG 53, 54, 55, 64, 65

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

 

Rona:               Ten kilometre squares: NG 65, 66

                        First Record: EPS 1933.

 

Almost as widespread as E. cinerea but in lower numbers. Less tolerant of dry conditions.

 

 

 

 

 

Eriophorum angustifolium Honck.  Common Cottongrass

 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 96

                        Ten kilometre squares: NG 53, 54, 55, 64, 65

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

 

Rona:               Ten kilometre squares: NG 65, 66

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

 

Common in bogs and wet moorland.

 

Eriophorum latifolium Hoppe  Broad-leaved Cottongrass

 

 

 

 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 14

                        Ten kilometre squares: NG 53, 54, 64l

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

 

Rona:               Ten kilometre squares: NG 65

                        First Record: SJB 2007.

 

Flushes, typically with Carex hostiana, Pinguicula lusitanica, Schoenus nigricans.

 

Herb. LANC: KBB 1935 Raasay.

 

 

 

Eriophorum vaginatum L.   Hare's-tail Cottongrass 

 

 

 

 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 83

                        Ten kilometre squares: NG 53, 54, 55, 64, 65

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

 

Rona:               Ten kilometre squares: NG 65, 66

                        First Record: EPS 1933.

 

Similar places to E. angustifolium.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Erophila glabrescens Jord.   Glabrous Whitlowgrass 

 

 

 

 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 8

                        Ten kilometre squares: NG 53, 54

                        First Record: SJB 1996.

 

Rona:               Not known.

 

Passing places on the road, old mine workings, rocks and dry grassy places. Specimens from all populations bar one known in 1997 were determined by TTE.

 

 

 

 

 

[Erophila verna (L.) DC.  Common Whitlowgrass]

Raasay:           Recording Units: 0

                        Ten kilometre squares: (NG 53, 54)

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

 

Rona:               Not known.

 

All Raasay Erophila records were as this until recently.

 

*Escallonia rubra (Ruiz & Pav.) var. macrantha (Hook. & Arn.) Reiche    Escallonia

Raasay:           Recording Units: 3

                        Ten kilometre squares: NG 53

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

 

Rona:               Not known.

 

Planted hedges (Harrison, 1937a); two on a wall JRP 1979. Occasionally naturalised.

 

*Eucalyptus globulus Labill.  Southern Blue-gum 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 1

                        Ten kilometre squares: NG 53

                        First Record: (JWHH et al. 1934-36.) SJB 1993.

 

Rona:               Not known.

 

Well-grown Eucalyptus trees on Raasay (Harrison, 1937a). Only one remained by 1991 and is there today (2009) on the road from Inverarish to Fearns. Identified as this species SJB 1993 conf. JMM.

 

Eupatorium cannabinum L.   Hemp-agrimony 

 

 

 

 

 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 30

                        Ten kilometre squares: All

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

 

Rona:               Ten kilometre squares: NG 65

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

 

Damp coastal cliffs and top of shores.

 

 

 

 

Euphorbia helioscopia L.  Sun Spurge

 

 

 

 

 

 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 4

                        Ten kilometre squares: NG 53, 54

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

 

Rona:               Not known.

 

Cultivated ground, Inverarish, Raasay House garden, Oskaig and Balachuirn.

 

 

 

 

 

Euphrasia officinalis agg. L.   Eyebright 

 

 

 

 

 

Raasay:           Recording Units: 95

                        Ten kilometre squares: All

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

 

Rona:               Ten kilometre squares: NG 65, 66

                        First Record: EPS 1933.

 

Widespread and common on moorland, rocks, grassland etc. A critical and complex genus. The Raasay populations would benefit from serious study.

 

 

 

 

 

Euphrasia arctica Lange ex Rostrup  Arctic Eyebright

Raasay:           Recording Units: 6

                        Ten kilometre squares: NG 53, 54.

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

 

Rona:               Ten kilometre squares: NG 65

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

 

Neutral grassland Fearns and Clachan SJB 2002 det. AJS as subsp. borealis. Baachurn 2015. Records of E. borealis on paths, grassy moorlands, etc. (Harrison, 1937a) belong here, though not certainly within subsp. borealis. Records of E. brevipila Burnat & Gremli (Harrison 1937a, 1937c) probably also belong here. Raasay and Rona records are probably all subsp. borealis (F. Towns.) Yeo but subsp. arctica is worth looking for.

 

Euphrasia arctica x confusa  

Raasay:           Recording Units: 0

                        Ten kilometre squares: (NG 53)

                        First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

 

Rona:               Not known.

 

As E. confusa x brevipila Burnat & Gremli, Inverarish (Harrison 1937a), Hallaig (Harrison 1937c).

 

 Euphrasia confusa Pugsley  Confused Eyebright

Raasay:           Recording Units: 1

                       Ten kilometre squares: NG 53

                       First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

 

Rona:              Not known.

 

Near Hallaig, Raasay, but probably widespread (Harrison, 1937a). One specimen from north of the Youth Hostel SJB 2002 Det. AJS.

 

Euphrasia heslop-harrisonii Pugsley    Heslop Harrison's Eyebright    Nationally Rare.  Near-threatened

Raasay:           Not known

 

Rona:              Recording Units: 1

                       Ten kilometre squares: NG 65

                       First Record: SJB and CWM 1994.

 

Dry Harbour, Rona. Det. AJS.

 

Euphrasia micrantha Rchb.   Slender Eyebright

Raasay:           Recording Units: 0

                       Ten kilometre squares: ?

                       First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

 

Rona:              Not known.

 

As E. gracilis Fries on the moors on Raasay; well distributed (Harrison 1937a).

 

Herb. HAMU: GWT 1936 Raasay (as E. gracilis Fries).

 

Euphrasia nemorosa (Pers.) Wallr.    Common Eyebright

Raasay:           Recording Units: 1

                       Ten kilometre squares: NG 53

                       First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

 

Rona:              Not known.

 

As E. curta Fries on Dun Caan (Harrison, 1937a), near North Fearns and on the moors near Loch Storab det. HWP (Harrison,1937c). As E. nemoralis (Pers.) Löhr near Dun Caan det. HWP (Harrison, 1937c). Undoubtedly under-recorded. One recent record near the cemetery SJB & AN 2007 det. AN.

 

 Euphrasia nemorosa x micrantha

Raasay:           Recording Units: 0

                       Ten kilometre squares: (NG 53)

                       First Record: JWHH et al. 1937.

 

Rona:              Not known.

 

As E. gracilis Fr. x curta Fr. “What looks to be this hybrid” near Dun Caan (Harrison 1937c).

 

Euphrasia ostenfeldii (Pugsley) Yeo  Ostenfeld's Eyebright

Raasay:           Recording Units: 0

                       Ten kilometre squares: NG 53

                       First Record: RBC 1937.

 

Rona:              Not known.

 

Loch Storab RBC 1937 det. PFY.  Taxonomic treatment of this species was changed in 1971, so this specimen may not fall within the current species concept.

Euphrasia scottica Wettst. Scottish Eyebright

Raasay:           Recording Units: 0

                       Ten kilometre squares: (NG 53)

                       First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

 

Rona:              Not known.

 

Rough ground near iron mine (Harrison 1937a).

 

Euphrasia x electa F. Towns.  Euphrasia micrantha x scottica

Raasay:           Recording Units: 2

                       Ten kilometre squares: NG 53, 54

                       First Record: SJB 2002.

 

Rona:              Not known.

 

Raasay moors 2002. Det. SJB shortly after demonstration of characteristics by AJS.

 

*Exaculum pusillum (Lam.) Caruel   Guernsey Centaury

Raasay:           Recording Units: 0

                       Ten kilometre squares: (NG 53)

                       First Record: JWHH et al. 1934-36.

 

Rona:              Not known.

 

“About three dozen plants were discovered in a hollow along a tributary of the Arish Burn just under the metal bridge crossing the Fearns Road. The examples examined were mostly very small. New to Britain, although on record for the Channel Islands” (Harrison 1937a). Det. Kew and RBGE.  Planted and long gone.

Herb. BM: JWHH & WAC 1936 Raasay. HAMU: JWHH 1936 Raasay. One plant ex-herb GWT ("almost certainly introduced"). E: JWHH 1936 and 1937 Raasay; Prof Graham's party 1935 Raasay.

 

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